History of Hanbok
The historical moment that Korean people started to wear Hanbok is not told to this day exactly.
But, Hanbok was already adjusted in the Ancient Gojoseon Dynasty according to the literature
and the history of our clothes Hanbok began in earnest from the Age of Three States.
The shape of Hanbok in early stage is found in Ancient Goguryeo-era
Muyongchong Tombs Mural of the ancient Goguryeo Dynasty,
and it is recognized that the original form of Chima (skirt) and Jeogori,
which are basic structure of Hanbok, are formed in this era, as both of men and women
wore the top with long sleeves which are equivalent to the Jeogori, trousers and Chima.
Hanbok showed the modification as the length of arms and sleeves are shortened
in Goryeo Dynasty after passing Unified Silla Dynasty, it is corrected firmly
as the basic structure of our clothes for the ordinary people.
The typical example is Otgoreum (coat string), which appeals Western person,
the modification like the appearance of Sildanchu (button with string)
as preliminary shape of Otgoreum, instead that belt is disappeared for long adjust,
was occurred in this period.
The difference of style between the men and women clothing widened from the Joseon Dynasty,
that wasn’t different largely with each other until the Age of Three States and the Goryeo Dynasty.
The most remarkable example of the change is Jeogori for women.
Jeogori with enough space in the early Joseon Dynasty became more short and narrow
after the late 16th century. The image of Hanbok people usually recalls is the style
of this period and the shortening of Jeogori had been intensified until
the last Joseon Dynasty but recently it is getting back its original feature.
Hanbok of 2,000 years of history slowly disappeared from mainstream society
as the official uniforms of the government had been changed to western style in 1895
and gave its position as everyday dress to western clothes through industrialization after
the Japanese colonial era and the Korean War.
But, Hanbok is still remained in one part of daily life of Korean people
and it is always together with the important events of one’s life.
The first cloth after the birth is Baenaetjeogori, and babies wear Saekdong-dolbok
at their first birthday which has the meaning of smooth life.
People wear Honrye-bok for their wedding ceremony
and the dead body is worn Sueui while the remained family wear Sang-bok.
Recently there are various styles of Hanbok which has a combination of western style
and Korean traditional designs and people enjoying convenient Hanbok are gradually increasing
Types of Hanbok
Hanbok has basically separated structure of top and bottom.
It can be divided to clothes for adults and kids and differentiated for seasons.
There is also separation of formal dress and everyday dress.
- For Male Adults
Basic compositions of Hanbok for male adults are Baji (trousers) and Jeogori.
After wearing Baji for bottom and Jeogori for top, they wore Jokki, Magoja, Durumagi (or Dopo)
and Gat (or Gwan). The compositions for events as wedding, memorial service
and funeral were also different from them. They wore white Durumagi or Dopo with Gat
and wore Sang-bok for funeral.
They wore Danryeong which was a uniform of officers regardless of their class
at the wedding ceremony.
- For Female Adults
There are Chima for bottom, Jeogori for top and Magoja and Durumagi for coat for female adults.
Sometimes they wore Baeja on Jeogori and they usually wore Teol-baeja in winter.
They wore Hwalot or Wonsam which were the dress of women in the palace for wedding ceremony
and wore Sang-bok for funeral. In 19th century when the length of Jeogori was extremely short,
they wore Sok-jeoksam and Heoritti together with Jeogori to cover their breast or armpits.
- For Male Kids
The everyday dresses for boys were same as those of male adults
but they wore Bokgeon on the head. Hanbok for only kids is Dol-bok for the first birthday.
Boys wore Heoritti (belt) which a lucky bag is attached and a leopard printed Hogeon.
They also wore a clothes named Obangjang Durumagi with the color of red, yellow, blue and
white which has the meaning of bless of the life of the boy.
- For Female Kids
Girls wore Chima, Jeogori, Baeja and Durumagi for everyday dresses and
wore Gule on the head to prevent from cold weather. Girls also wore Obangjang Durumagi
at their first birthday to wish their luck.
Composition of Hanbok
It is a basic top cloth of Hanbok composed of body, collar, outer collar at the adjusting part,
and sleeves. It is separated for men and women and is varied to materials, the way
it is made and the shapes.
- Chima (Skirt)
Chima is a basic bottom wear for women and is simply composed of body, belt and rope.
There are Hot-chima, Gyeop-chima and Nubi-chima for Geot-chima
which is an everyday dress and there are Mujigi and Daesum-chima for Sok-chima (inner skirt).
Seuran-chima and Daeran-chima are for formal dresses.
There are Pul-chima and Tong-chima varied by its shape of the skirt hem.
- Baji (Trousers)
Baji is a basic bottom wear for men since the Age of the Three States.
They wore Heoritti (belt) and Daenim (belt for ankle).
Women also wore Baji named “Go” in the Age of Three States
but later they became to wear mainly Chima and Baji was worn as an inner dress.
The outer cloth of Hanbok and it is a cloth for going out.
People certainly wore Durumagi for going out then
but recently it has got the position as a formal dress
that it has been worn at the event as memorial services, Sebae (the New Year’s greetings)
and Dol-janchi of babies. The types of Durumagi are separated for seasons.
Gyeop-durumagi is for spring and fall, Hot-durumagi is for summer
and Som-durumagi is for winter.
The name of Durumagi came from the meaning that all sides are blocked.
It is a cloth worn over Jeogori and has a shape of a vest without buttons.
It looks similar with Magoja but it has no sleeves.
It is for both men and women and cotton or wool are put in Baeja in winter.
It is separated as Jang-baeja and Dan-baeja to its length.
They correspond to the socks of these days and both men and women wore them.
They were worn with be distinguished with the thing
which has a stitching on right direction in it is for right foot,
and has it on left direction is for left foot separately.
They are classified as straight-Beoseon and laid-Beoseon according to the shape,
and as Som-beoseon, Gyeop-beoseon, Hot-beoseon, Nubi-beoseon and
Tarae-beoseon according to the sewing skill. And it was called as Jokeui
which means clothes for feet.